Joy Wattawa


Network Member

University of Chicago

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Joy Wattawa oversees outreach efforts for the Arete Initiative, developing communication/outreach strategies and publicizing the scientific work of projects associated with Arete.

Wattawa is the Assistant Director of Interdisciplinary Outreach at the Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience. After earning her B.A. in biochemistry from Reed College, Wattawa received a Fulbright Scholarship to study biophysics in France, and she recently completed an M.A. in Social Sciences, focusing on History of Science, at the University of Chicago.



Recent Publications
The Unconscious Will: How the Pursuit of Goals Operates Outside of Conscious Awareness
Science, Vol. 329. no. 5987, pg. 47 - 50. by Ruud Custers and Henk Aarts People often act in order to realize desired outcomes, or goals. Although behavioral science recognizes that people can skillfully pursue goals without consciously attending to their behavior once these goals are set, conscious...
Weatherwiser?
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, Vol. 40 Issue 1, pg. 125-135. The article, written by Defining Wisdom grantee Deborah Coen , reviews several books on the history of weather, including "Hurricanes and Society in the British Greater Caribbean, 1624-1783," by Matthew Mulcahy, "British Weather and the...
Collective wisdom and decision making in surgical oncology
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 38, pg. 230-6. by N Robson and D Rew AIM: To describe systems for capturing and optimising collective knowledge and insight in areas of complexity and uncertainty in surgical oncology, with particular reference to the Delphi process and related systems. METHODS: Internet...
Lab Experiments for the Study of Social-Ecological Systems
Science, Vol. 328. No. 5978, pg. 613 - 617. by Marco A. Janssen, Robert Holahan, Allen Lee, and Elinor Ostrom Governance of social-ecological systems is a major policy problem of the contemporary era. Field studies of fisheries, forests, and pastoral and water resources have identified many variables...
Prior Information Biases Stimulus Representations during Vibrotactile Decision Making
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 5, pgs. 875-887, 2010. Claudia Preuschhof, Torsten Schubert, Arno Villringer, and Hauke R. Heekeren Neurophysiological data suggest that the integration of prior information and incoming sensory evidence represents the neural basis of the decision-making process. Here, we aimed...
Pro-Environmental Behavior and Rational Consumer Choice: Evidence From Surveys of Life Satisfaction
Journal of Economic Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.joep.2010.01.009, 2010. Heinz Welsch and Jan Kühling This paper theoretically and empirically investigates the hypothesis of decision error in environmental-friendly consumption. Existing evidence suggests that people make systematic mistakes in affective forecasting that lead...
The Impact of Autonomy and Task Uncertainty On Team Performance: A Longitudinal Field Study
Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 31, Issue 2-3, pg. 240 - 258, 2010. by John L. Cordery, David Morrison, Brett M. Wright, Toby D. Wal In this paper, we seek to account for modest and inconsistent empirical support for a positive relationship between team autonomy and team performance by proposing that team task uncertainty...
How Prevalent is Wishful Thinking? Misattribution of Arousal Causes Optimism and Pessimism in Subjective Probabilities
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Vol 139(1), pg. 32-48, 2010. by Joachim Vosgerau People appear to be unrealistically optimistic about their future prospects, as reflected by theory and research in the fields of psychology, organizational behavior, behavioral economics, and behavioral finance. Many real-world examples...
Behavior and Energy Policy
Science, Vol. 327, Issue 5970, pg. 1204-1205, 2010. by Hunt Allcott and Sendhil Mullainathan The article discusses energy efficiency, human behavior, and research on both. The authors opine that behavioral sciences can be used to develop business and policy innovations. The article discusses relevant research...
The Absorption Hypothesis: Learning to Hear God in Evangelical Christianity
American Anthropologist, Vol. 112, Issue 1, pg. 66-78, 2010. by Luhrmann, T. M., Nusbaum, Howard, Thisted, Ronald In this article, we use a combination of ethnographic data and empirical methods to identify a process called “absorption,” which may be involved in contemporary Christian evangelical prayer practice...
The Social Desirability of Punishment Avoidance
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, doi:10.1093/jleo/ewp037 by Avraham D. Tabbach This article argues that the law should sometimes encourage offenders to incur costs to avoid punishment. Avoidance, such as concealment of evidence, perjury, or obstruction of justice, is generally deemed socially undesirable because...
Points of View, Social Positioning and Intercultural Relations
Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, Vol. 40, Issue 1, pg. 47-64, 2010. by Gordon Sammut and George Gaskell The challenge of intercultural relations has become an important issue in many societies. In spite of the claimed value of intercultural diversity, successful outcomes as predicted by the contact hypothesis are but...
Degrees of Uncertainty: An Overview and Framework For Future Research On Experience-Based Choice
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Vol. 23 Issue 1, pg. 1-14, 2010. by Tim Rakow and Ben R. Newell A striking finding has emerged recently in the literature: When decision makers are faced with essentially the same choice, their preferences differ as a function of whether options are described or are “experienced” via...
Good Things Come to Those Who Wait: Attenuated Discounting of Delayed Rewards in Aged Fischer 344 Rats
Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 31, Issue 5, pgs. 853-862, 2010. Nicholas W. Simon , Candi L. LaSarge , Karienn S. Montgomery , Matthew T. Williams , Ian A. Mendez , Barry Setlow , Jennifer L. Bizon The ability to make advantageous choices among outcomes that differ in magnitude, probability, and delay until their...
Framing Essay: Performing Public Wisdom
Social Dynamics, Vol. 36, Issue 1, pgs. 179 - 186, 2010. by Leon de Kock "The conceit is often adopted in the strategic performance of public wisdom - oracular, figurative, enunciating visions and versions of self as well as community - that truth is looming, that it is there to be embraced in self-evidently...
How Planful is Routine Behavior? A Selective-Attention Model of Performance in the Tower of Hanoi
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 139(1), pg. 95-116, 2010. by Elena G. Patsenko , Erik M. Altmann Routine human behavior has often been attributed to plans—mental representations of sequences goals and actions—but can also be attributed to more opportunistic interactions of mind and a structured environment....
Actors are Skilled in Theory of Mind But Not Empathy
Imagination, Cognition and Personality, Vol. 29, No 2, 2010. by Thalia R. Goldstein, Katherine Wu, Ellen Winner Actors must imagine themselves in a different world: they must adopt the perspective of multiple characters, grasp their beliefs and intentions, and feel their emotions. In this study we tested the hypothesis...
Emotional and Behavioural Reactions to Moral Transgressions: Cross-Cultural and Individual Variations in India and Britain
International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 45(1), pg. 64 - 71, 2010. by Simon M. Laham, Sonavi Chopra, Mansur Lalljee, Brian Parkinson Reactions to moral transgressions are subject to influence at both the cultural and individual levels. Transgressions against an individual's rights or against social conventions of...
Confidence Mediates How Investment Knowledge Influences Investing Self-Efficacy
Journal of Economic Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.joep.2010.01.012, 2010. by James Forbes and S. Murat Kara A comprehensive investment literacy questionnaire surveyed potential sources (viz., knowledge, confidence) of investing self-efficacy in a large sample of working adults. As expected, the effect of investment knowledge...
Load Theory of Selective Attention and the Role of Perceptual Load: Is it Time for Revision?
European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/09541440902787014. by Neha Khetrapal Perceptual load hypothesis is proposed as a compromise between early and late theory of selective attention which states that the selection will operate early when the load on perception is high and it will operate late when the load...
The Talking Point: Creating an Environment for Exploring Complex Meaning
Information Age Publishing. (A Collaborative Project of the Institute for 21st Century Agoras) "The Talking Point is all about how people learn within groups. People can be much smarter than crowds if you measure “smart” as decision-making speed. Crowds can be much wiser than...
Emotional Reactivity Across the Adult Life Span: The Cognitive Pragmatics Make a Difference
Psychology & Aging, Vol. 24, Issue 4, pg. 879-889, 2009. by Ute Kunzmann and David Richter Previously, we found that during films about age-typical losses, older adults experienced greater sadness than young adults, whereas their physiological responses were just as large. In the present study, our goal was...
Fast and Frugal Heuristics: Tools of Social Rationality
Social Cognition, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pg. 661-698 Ralph Hertwig and Stefan M. Herzog Homo economicus cannot help but be puzzled by people's baffling array of social behaviors that conflict with economic theory. To accommodate these “deviant” behaviors within the standard view of rationality, defined...
The Cognitive-Ecological Approach to Rationality in Social Psychology
Social Cognition, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pg. 699-732 Klaus Fiedler and Michaela Wänke The entire discipline of social cognition has been greatly influenced by the heuristics-and-biases research program, which was traditionally based on an internal attribution of bounded rationality to the individual's...
Adaptive Rationality: An Evolutionary Perspective on Cognitive Bias
Social Cognition, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pg. 733-763 Martie G. Haselton , Gregory A. Bryant , Andreas Wilke , David A. Frederick , Andrew Galperin , Willem E. Frankenhuis , Tyler Moore A casual look at the literature in social cognition reveals a vast collection of biases, errors, violations of rational...
Neuroculture
Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 10, pg. 815-821 Giovanni Frazzetto & Suzanne Anker Neuroscience addresses questions that, if resolved, will reveal aspects of our individuality. Therefore neuroscientific knowledge is not solely constrained within laboratories, but readily captures the attention...
The motivated use of moral principles
Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 476-491 by Eric Luis Uhlmann, David A. Pizarro, David Tannenbaum and Peter H. Ditto Five studies demonstrated that people selectively use general moral principles to rationalize preferred moral conclusions. In Studies 1a and 1b, college students and community...
Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition: The Wisdom of Individuals or Crowds?
Cognitive Science 32: 1133-1147 by Michael C. Mozer, Harold Pashler and Hadjar Homaei Griffiths and Tenenbaum (2006) asked individuals to make predictions about the duration or extent of everyday events (e.g., cake baking times), and reported that predictions were optimal, employing...
The Wisdom of Individuals: Exploring People’s Knowledge About Everyday Events Using Iterated Learning
Cognitive Science 33: 969–998. by Stephan Lewandowsky, Thomas L. Griffiths, Michael L. Kalish Determining the knowledge that guides human judgments is fundamental to understanding how people reason, make decisions, and form predictions. We use an experimental procedure called ‘‘iterated...
The Wisdom of Your Dreams: Using Dreams to Tap into Your Unconscious and Transform Your Life
Tarcher, 2009 by Jeremy Taylor "Renowned dream expert Jeremy Taylor can help you discover how the hidden messages in your dreams can change your life. In The Wisdom of Your Dreams: Using Dreams to Tap Into Your Unconscious and Transform Your Life, Taylor shows...
The scent of supercolonies: the discovery, synthesis and behavioural verification of ant colony recognition cues
BMC Biology 2009, 7:71 Miriam Brandt, Ellen van Wilgenburg, Robert Sulc, Kenneth J Shea and Neil D Tsutsui (wisdom grantee) Background Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically...
How effectively do people learn from a variety of different opinions?
Experimental Economics, DOI 10.1007/s10683-009-9220-1 by Andrew Healy This paper presents experimental evidence about how effectively individuals learn from information coming from heterogeneous sources. In the experiment, Thai subjects observed information that came from Americans and from other Thais that...
The cognitive neuroscience of deception
Social Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1080/17470910802507660 Giorgio Ganis and Julian Paul Keenan William Hazlitt (1778-1830), a British writer, once asserted that, “life is the art of being deceived.” Human social relations are so steeped in deception that it is impossible to imagine life without it. From great...
When Elephants Fly: Differential Sensitivity of Right and Left Inferior Frontal Gyri to Discourse and World Knowledge
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 21, No. 12, pg. 2358-2368 Laura Menenti , Karl Magnus Petersson, René Scheeringa , and Peter Hagoort Both local discourse and world knowledge are known to influence sentence processing. We investigated how these two sources of information conspire in language comprehension. Two...
Toward a Relativity Theory of Rationality
Social Cognition, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pg. 639-660 Arie W. Kruglanski and Edward Orehek We analyze two conceptions of rationality featured in the social science literature, rationality as a means-ends relation and rationality as logical consistency . The former concerns the rationality of actions ; it...
Perceptual Decisions: From Sensory Signals to Behavior
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 18, pgs. R847-R849 by Joachim Gross and Markus Ploner Recent non-invasive studies in humans provide new insights into the timing of perceptual decision making and show that integrated sensory evidence is represented in motor areas well before a behavioral response. Read...
Animal Cognition: Aesop's Fable Flies from Fiction to Fact
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 17, pgs R731-R732 by Alex H. Taylor and Russell D. Gray A new study shows that rooks are able to spontaneously drop stones into a tube of water to obtain a floating worm. This sophisticated problem solving raises intriguing questions about the use of imagination in animals...
The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World
House of Anansi Press (October 13, 2009) by Wade Davis "Over the past decade, many of us have been alarmed to learn of the rapidly accelerating extinction of our planet's diverse flora and fauna. But how many of us know that our human cultural diversity is also going extinct at a shocking...
Streetlights and Shadows: Searching for the Keys to Adaptive Decision Making
Klein, Gary. Streetlights and Shadows: Searching for the Keys to Adaptive Decision Making. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2009. "In making decisions, when should we go with our gut and when should we try to analyze every option? When should we use our intuition and when should we rely on logic and statistics? Most of us would probably agree that for important decisions, we...
Wisdom and Positive Psychosocial Values in Young Adulthood
Journal of Adult Development, DOI 10.1007/s10804-009-9081-z by Jeffrey Dean Webster Abstract : The current project investigates wisdom and positive psychosocial characteristics in young adults in a series of three overlapping studies. Study 1 ( N = 61) investigated wisdom and ego-integrity, values, and life attitudes...
Fitness “kinematics”: biological function, altruism, and organism–environment development
Biology and Philosophy, Volume 24, Number 4. by Marshall Abrams Abstract: It’s recently been argued that biological fitness can’t change over the course of an organism’s life as a result of organisms’ behaviors. However, some characterizations of biological function and biological altruism tacitly...
Discounting future green: Money versus the environment
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Vol 138(3), 2009, 329-340. In 3 studies, participants made choices between hypothetical financial, environmental, and health gains and losses that took effect either immediately or with a delay of 1 or 10 years. In all 3 domains, choices indicated that gains were discounted more...
Philosophy in the trenches: from naturalized to experimental philosophy (of science)
Studies In History and Philosophy of Science Part A, Volume 40, Issue 2, pg 225-226 Karola Stotz Recent years have seen the development of an approach both to general philosophy and philosophy of science often referred to as ‘experimental philosophy’ or just ‘X-Phi’. Philosophers often make or presuppose empirical claims about how people...
Eliciting conceptual models to support interdisciplinary research
Journal of Information Science, Vol. 35, No. 3, 259-278 Pieter J. Beers and Pieter W.G. Bots Constructing interdisciplinary knowledge is particularly difficult because scientific knowledge is situated in its discipline. Researchers must find common ground to share, and this causes high transaction costs. This...
Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry
Journal of Research in Personality, 43: 18-24 Cokely, E.T., & Feltz, A. When the side effect of an action involves moral considerations (e.g. when a chairman’s pursuit of profits harms the environment) it tends to influence theory-of-mind judgments. On average, bad side effects are judged intentional...
The dynamics of development: Challenges for Bayesian reasoning
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32: 103-104 Straubinger, N., Cokely, E.T., & Stevens, J.R. According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language...
What is context?
Anthropological Theory, Vol. 9, No. 2, 149-169 This essay is an attempt to explore the ontology of context by elucidating its uses in the production of new knowledges out of the old. It is argued that some of the master concepts in anthropological discourse, to wit nature, culture, society and the...
Valuing Knowledge: A Deontological Approach
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 10.1007/s10677-009-9185-3 The fact that we ought to prefer what is comparatively more likely to be good, I argue, does, contrary to consequentialism, not rest on any evaluative facts. It is, in this sense, a deontological requirement. As such it is the basis of our valuing those...
From Rational to Wise Action: Recasting Our Theories of Entrepreneurship
Journal of Business Ethics, DOI 10.1007/s10551-009-0170-5 In this article, I argue that if we challenge some tacit assumptions of narrow rationality that endure in much of entrepreneurial studies, we can elevate entrepreneurial ethics beyond mere external constraints on rational action, and move toward fuller...
Cognitive Ecology: Environmental Dependence of the Fitness Costs of Learning
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 12, pgs R486-R488 Nigel E. Raine A recent study has found that butterflies maintain behavioural plasticity useful to them in rare environments by reducing associated costs in common environments. Butterflies use innate sensory biases to locate common green hosts, but learn...
Learning and Memory: While You Rest, Your Brain Keeps Working
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 12, 23 June 2009, pgs R484-R486 Justin L. Vincent A recent study shows that brain activity recorded while the human subject is at ‘rest’ is significantly affected by a prior learning episode. These results suggest that understanding resting brain activity may be critical to understanding...
Mothers and Others
Harvard University Press, 2009 The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding, by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy Somewhere in Africa, more than a million years ago, a line of apes began to rear their young differently than their Great Ape ancestors. From this new form of care came new ways of...
Clinical reasoning: new challenges
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, Vol 30, 3: 173-179. William E. Stempsey This article is an introduction to a special issue of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics on clinical reasoning. Clinical reasoning encompasses the gamut of thinking about clinical medical practice-the evaluation and management of patients'...
Wisdom in clinical reasoning and medical practice
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, Vol 30, 3: 231-247. Exploring informal components of clinical reasoning, we argue that they need to be understood via the analysis of professional wisdom. Wise decisions are needed where action or insight is vital, but neither everyday nor expert knowledge provides solutions...
Calculative Deliberation is Insufficient for Practical Wisdom
Journal of Value Inquiry, Vol 43, Issue 2: 149-164. After witnessing the trial of Adolf Eichmann, Hannah Arendt was particularly astonished not by the criminal's horrific deeds during the Holocaust but by his thoughtlessness. Thoughtlessness is not stupidity but the inability or failure to think from...
Psychology and Medical Decision-Making
The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 9, Issue 6 & 7 June 2009 , pgs 79 - 81 Christopher Suhler and Patricia Churchland "In the target article discussion of the Changing Ethical Norms category, Kon (2009) rightly highlights the contributions psychological research can make to bioethics. In this commentary, we suggest that...
The x-phi(les): unusual insights into the nature of inquiry
Studies In History and Philosophy of Science Part A, Volume 40, Issue 2, pg 227-232 Jonathan M. Weinberg and Stephen Crowley Experimental philosophy is often regarded as a category mistake. Even those who reject that view typically see it as irrelevant to standard philosophical projects. We argue that neither of these claims can be sustained...
The Experience of Depth Curiosity: The Pursuit of Congruence Despite the Danger of Engulfment
Journal of Constructivist Psychology; Jul2009, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p187-212. A recent publication by one of our grantees and colleagues, Heidi Levitt. This article presents a grounded theory analysis of the experience of sustaining an abiding curiosity. Results emphasize how curiosity became inherently motivating and pleasurable...
Temperament and intuition: A commentary on Feltz and Cokely
Consciousness & Cognition; Mar2009, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p351-355. Co-authored by one of our grantees, Eddy Nahmias. "In this paper, we examine Adam Feltz and Edward Cokely’s recent claim that “the personality trait extraversion predicts people’s intuitions about the relationship of determinism to free will and...
A quantum probability explanation for violations of ‘rational’ decision theory
Proc. R. Soc. B, 276, 1665: 2171-2178. Emmanuel M. Pothos and Jerome R. Busemeyer Two experimental tasks in psychology, the two-stage gambling game and the Prisoner's Dilemma game, show that people violate the sure thing principle of decision theory. These paradoxical findings have resisted...
Big Brain: The Origins and Future of Intelligence
Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 "In this groundbreaking look at the evolution of our brains, eminent neuroscientists Gary Lynch and Richard Granger uncover the mysteries of the outsize intelligence of our ancestors, who had bigger brains than humans living today. Weaving together...
Learning: An evolutionary analysis
Educational Philosophy and Theory Volume 41 Issue 3, Pages 256 - 269 J oanna S wann " This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: 'What happens when learning takes place?' and 'What...
The Cultural Roots of Professional Wisdom: Towards a broader view of teacher expertise
Educational Philosophy and Theory Volume 41 Issue 2, Pages 141 - 154 D avid C arr & D on S kinner "Perhaps the most pressing issue concerning teacher education and training since the end of the Second World War has been that of the role of theory—or principled reflection—in professional expertise. Here, although...
Reason, emotion and decision-making: risk and reward computation with feeling
Trends in Cognitive Sciences Volume 13, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 209-215 Steven R. Quartz Many models of judgment and decision-making posit distinct cognitive and emotional contributions to decision-making under uncertainty. Cognitive processes typically involve exact computations according to a cost-benefit calculus, whereas...
Do judgments about freedom and responsibility depend on who you are? Personality differences in intuitions about compatibilism and incompatibilism
Consciousness and Cognition Volume 18, Issue 1, March 2009, Pages 342-350 Adam Feltz and Edward T. Cokely "Recently, there has been an increased interest in folk intuitions about freedom and moral responsibility from both philosophers and psychologists. We aim to extend our understanding of folk intuitions about freedom...
Dirty work, clean hands: The moral psychology of indirect agency
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Article in Press, Corrected Proof Neeru Paharia, Karim S. Kassam, Joshua D. Greene and Max H. Bazerman When powerful people cause harm, they often do so indirectly through other people. Are harmful actions carried out through others evaluated less negatively than harmful actions carried...
The Wisdom Development Scale: Further Validity Investigations
Int'l J. Aging and Human Development, Vol. 68 (4) 289-320. by Jeffrey A. Greene and Scott C. Brown Researchers are gaining an interest in the concept of wisdom, a more holistic yet often ineffable educational outcome. Models of wisdom abound, but few have rigorously tested measures. This study looks at Brown...
Natural compatibilism versus natural incompatibilism: Back to the drawing board
Mind and Language, 24, 1-23. Feltz, A., Cokely, E.T., Nadelhoffer, T. In the free will literature, some compatibilists and some incompatibilists claim that their views best capture ordinary intuitions concerning free will and moral responsibility. One goal of researchers working...
An Interfaith Wisdom: Scriptural Reasoning between Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Modern Theology, Volume 22 Issue 3, pgs 345 - 366 David F. Ford The origins of scriptural reasoning, in which Jews, Christians and Muslims study their scriptures in conversation with each other, are described. Some maxims implicit in its form of Abrahamic collegiality are distilled (including the emphasis...
Relations of homology between higher cognitive emotions and basic emotions
Biology and Philosophy, epub ahead of print. Jason A. Clark In the last 10 years, several authors including Griffiths and Matthen have employed classificatory principles from biology to argue for a radical revision in the way that we individuate psychological traits. Arguing that the fundamental...
Colony-level cognition
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 10, 26 May 2009 James A.R. Marshall and Nigel R. Franks "What is cognition? We favour the following definition of cognition: “cognition [is] the ability to use internal representations of information acquired in separate events, and to combine these to generate...
Functional Neuroanatomy: The Locus of Human Intelligence
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 10, 26 May 2009 Parashkev Nachev, Yee-Haur Mah and Masud Husain A new study mapping the functional effects of brain lesions has revealed a surprising map of human intelligence, stimulating a re-evaluation of data from purely correlative methods such as functional magnetic...
Social Learning: What Do Drosophila Have to Offer?
Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 9, 12 May 2009 Ellouise Leadbeater The recent finding that female Drosophila copy the mate-choice criteria of other females introduces a mainstream model species to the study of how animals use social information. Read the article.
Can evolution explain how minds work?
Nature 458, 832-833 Johan J. Bolhuis & Clive D. L. Wynne "Biologists have tended to assume that closely related species will have similar cognitive abilities. Johan J. Bolhuis and Clive D. L. Wynne put this evolutionarily inspired idea through its paces. Darwin's...
Is free will an illusion?
Nature 459, 164-165 Martin Heisenberg Scientists and philosophers are using new discoveries in neuroscience to question the idea of free will. They are misguided, says Martin Heisenberg. Examining animal behaviour shows how our actions can be free... Read the essay.
Counterclockwise: Mindful Health and the Power of Possibility
Ballentine Books, 2009. by Ellen J. Langer "If we could turn back the clock psychologically, could we also turn it back physically? For more than thirty years, award-winning social psychologist Ellen Langer has studied this provocative question, and now, in Counterclockwise...
Hagia Sophia (Divine Wisdom)
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(4):353 Perspective on wisdom, holism, and epistemics, a term used to describe the systematic study of subjective knowledge. This article is a commentary on the Neurobiology of Wisdom article in the same issue and journal. by James C. Harris, M.D. There is in...
Empirical Ethics as Dialogical Practice
Bioethics, Vol. 23, Issue 4, pg. 236-248 Widdershoven, G (Widdershoven, Guy), Abma, T (Abma, Tineke), Molewijk, B (Molewijk, Bert) Abstract: In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards...
The justificatory power of moral experience
Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 35, Issue 4, pg. 234-237 by van Thiel, G. J. M. W., van Delden, J. J. M. Abstract: A recurrent issue in the vast amount of literature on reasoning models in ethics is the role and nature of moral intuitions. In this paper, we start from the view that people who work and live...
Questions of wisdom
Nurs Sci Q, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pg. 120-124 Sandra Schmidt Bunkers, RN; PhD; FAAN Abstract: In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology...
Wisdom in Caring Research
Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 2, 109-115 Marguerite J. Purnell, RN; PhD Abstract: Light is the metaphor for wisdom; we seek and turn toward light as we seek and reach for wisdom, personally and professionally. The purpose of human life is, as Jung noted, kindling the light of meaning to illuminate...
Wisdom principles as a meta-theoretical basis for evaluating leadership
Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 20, Issue 2: 177-190 McKenna, Bernard, Rooney, David, Boal, Kimberley B " Abstract : This article responds to calls in the management and leadership literature to articulate a role for wisdom. While many talk about the role of wisdom, few people have attempted to articulate...
The knowledge pyramid: a critique of the DIKW hierarchy
Journal of Information Science Frické 35 (2): 131 by Martin Frické Abstract : The paper evaluates the data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy. This hierarchy, also known as the 'knowledge hierarchy', is part of the canon of information science and management. Arguments are offered...
Knowledge, wisdom and intellectual leadership: a question of the future and knowledge-based sustainability
International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol. 6, No.1/2 : 52 - 70 David Rooney, Bernard McKenna Abstract: Important aspects of knowledge that are underresearched include links between knowledge, wisdom and leadership. This represents a research lacuna, which, if addressed, can help leaders develop knowledge-based strategies...
Introductory: The Global Potential of Pragmatism
Human Affairs 19, 1–9 EMIL VIŠŇOVSKÝ "From among the many philosophies that have ever existed, the best versions may be considered the philosophies that exert their effect on human conduct. Philosophy for the sake of philosophy itself may be edifying and sublime, like...
The Neurobiology of Wisdom: A Literature Overview
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(4):355-365. Thomas W. Meeks, MD; Dilip V. Jeste, MD Context Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry...
Is Our Brain Too Big to Think Effectively?
Current Anthropology Volume 50, Number 2, April 2009 Konrad R. Fialkowski "In their paper, “Archaic Human Admixture,” Garrigan and Kingan ( 2007 ) wrote, In contrast to Xp21 and RRM2P4 examples, in which the putatively introgressed archaic lineages were found at relatively low frequencies, the MCPH1...
Intention, Belief, and Wishful Thinking: Setiya on “Practical Knowledge”
Ethics 119 (April 2009): 546–557 Sarah K. Paul In “Practical Knowledge,” Kieran Setiya argues for the thesis that “forming an intention is forming a belief about what one is doing, or what one is going to do.” He then takes up what appears to be a curious consequence of this thesis:...
Intention, Practical Rationality, and Self‐Governance
Ethics 119: 411–443. The planning theory of intention and of our agency highlights the fundamental coordinating and organizing roles of structures of planning in the temporally extended and social practical thought and action of agents like us. Intentions are elements of...
Adaptive variation in judgment and philosophical intuition
Consciousness and Cognition Volume 18, Issue 1, March 2009, Pages 356-358. Our theoretical understanding of individual differences can be used as a tool to test and refine theory. Individual differences are useful because judgments, including philosophically relevant intuitions, are the predictable products of the fit between...
Neuroethics as a Brain-Based Philosophy of Life: The Case of Michael S. Gazzaniga
Neuroethics, 2: 3-11 "Michael S. Gazzaniga, a pioneer and world leader in cognitive neuroscience, has made an initial attempt to develop neuroethics into a brain-based philosophy of life that he hopes will replace the irrational religious and political belief-systems...
Conceptions of Wisdom
JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE, Vol. 35, Issue 1, pg. 110 Abstract: This article reports exploratory research on the meanings associated with the concept of wisdom by two groups of intending information professionals. Concern for the limited success of knowledge management initiatives and the complexity and...
The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research
Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 94(2), pg. 491-500. "Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on the unique predictability of different types of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the relative importance of these types of justice on outcome variables. Recently,...
Science and the Pursuit of Wisdom: Studies in the Philosophy of Nicholas Maxwell
Ontos Verlag by Leemon McHenry (Ed.) "Nicholas Maxwell's provocative and highly-original philosophy of science urges a revolution in academic inquiry affecting all branches of learning, so that the single-minded pursuit of knowledge is replaced with the aim...
The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism
RELIGIOUS STUDIES, Vol. 45, Issue 1, pg. 114 A recently published review of J.L. Schellenberg's 2007 "The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism," Cornell University Press, 2007 by Jack Macintosh. Read the review
Political grandstanding and the use of proverbs in African political discourse
Discourse & Society, Vol. 20, No. 1, 123-146 Daniel Ochieng Orwenjo In Africa, the transmission of the overwhelming complexity of the people's day-to-day experiences are deeply rooted in the continent's rich cultural artistry. Proverbs are the most widely and commonly used in the continent's...
Professional supervision: trusting the wisdom that 'comes'
British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, Vol 37, Issue 1 Elizabeth Ann Smythe, Tony MacCulloch, Richard Charmley The lived experience of professional supervision is complex and dynamic. Techne, the knowledge that informs the 'know-how' of practice, offers guidance. Phronesis, the dynamic wisdom that...
The Wisdom of Many in One Mind: Improving Individual Judgments With Dialectical Bootstrapping
Psychological Science, Volume 20, Number 2, pp. 231-237(7) Herzog, Stefan M., Hertwig, Ralph The “wisdom of crowds” in making judgments about the future or other unknown events is well established. The average quantitative estimate of a group of individuals is consistently more accurate than the typical estimate...
Teaching Wisdom to Interest: Book Five of Plato's Republic
Political Science & Politics, 42:197-200 Cambridge University Press Timothy J. Lukes and Mary F. Scudder We suggest that Book Five of the Republic , where Plato discusses the status of women in the guardian class, is a superb source of Platonic insight. For it is precisely the discussion of women that is most vulnerable...
The uncertain reasoner: Bayes, logic, and rationality
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1 Abstract: Human cognition requires coping with a complex and uncertain world. This suggests that dealing with uncertainty may be the central challenge for human reasoning. In Bayesian Rationality we argue that probability theory, the calculus of uncertainty...
Structured statistical models of inductive reasoning
Psychological Review. Vol 116(1) "Everyday inductive inferences are often guided by rich background knowledge. Formal models of induction should aim to incorporate this knowledge and should explain how different kinds of knowledge lead to the distinctive patterns of reasoning found...
Systemic Wisdom, The 'Selving' of Nature, and Knowledge Transformation
Studies in Philosophy and Education, Volume 28, Number 1 Michael Bonnett Considerations arising in the context of burgeoning concerns about the environment can provoke an exploration of issues that have significance both for environmental education in particular and education more generally. Notions of the...
Wisdom for Sale? The Sophists and Money
Classical Philology, 104 no.1, pp. 13–33 by Håkan Tell Plato constantly accuses the sophists of teaching for money.1 For example, in the Hippias Maior (282c–d), Sokrates elaborates a distinction between the wise men of old, who did not think it right to charge fees, and the sophists of his own...
Conceptual representations in goal-directed decision making
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2008 8:418-428 Philippe N. Tobler Emerging evidence suggests that the long-established distinction between habit-based and goal-directed decision-making mechanisms can also be sustained in humans. Although the habit-based system has been extensively studied in humans...
Teaching for Wisdom: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Fostering Wisdom
Springer, 2008. Michel Ferrari and Georges Potworowski, eds. Wisdom is valued as an ideal aim of personal development around the world. But we rarely see how wisdom is understood in different religious and philosophical traditions and different scientific disciplines...
Comparison of the Conceptualization of Wisdom in Ancient Indian Literature with Modern Views: Focus on the Bhagavad Gita
Psychiatry 71(3) by Dilip V. Jeste, M.D. and Ipsit V. Vahia, M.D. Abstract: The study of wisdom has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest, although the concept of wisdom is ancient. This article focuses on conceptualization of wisdom in the Bhagavad...
Differential age trajectories of positive and negative affect: further evidence from the berlin aging study
The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences; 63(5): 261-70. by Defining Wisdom grantee Ute Kunzmann In cross-sectional and longitudinal samples from the Berlin Aging Study, fellow researchers and I examined performance-based and self-evaluative indicators of functioning in two realms as predictors of individual...
Neuroethics as a Brain-Based Philosophy of Life
Neuroethics, 2: 3-11 " Michael S. Gazzaniga, a pioneer and world leader in cognitive neuroscience, has made an initial attempt to develop neuroethics into a brain-based philosophy of life that he hopes will replace the irrational religious and political belief-systems...
Folk Psychological Narratives: The Sociocultural Basis of Understanding Reasons
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA " Established wisdom in cognitive science holds that the everyday folk psychological abilities of humans—our capacity to understand intentional actions performed for reasons—are inherited from our evolutionary forebears. In Folk Psychological Narratives...
Understanding Our Being: Introduction to Speculative Philosophy in the Perennial Tradition
The Catholic University of America Press, 2008 "The Catholic University of America Press is pleased to announce publication of Understanding Our Being: Introduction to Speculative Philosophy in the Perennial Tradition by John W. Carlson. In the encyclical Fides et ratio, Pope John Paul II called...
Creativity, Wisdom, and Trusteeship: Exploring the Role of Education
Corwin Press by Anna Craft (Editor), Howard Gardner (Editor), Guy Claxton (Editor) This book is oriented towards educators as trustees of the culture to aid development of creativity and wisdom. In this sense it is practice-oriented. This book came up during our Defining...
Toward An Epistemology of Wise Judgment
Philo, 10: 2, pg. 136-148. by Patrick McKee The term “wise” applied to judgments is honorific, suggesting special epistemic achievement. That achievement consists in making a judgment on the basis of an aspect of inner experience I call “seeing through illusion.” I analyze the...
From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the Humanities
Pentire Press, 2007. by Nicholas Maxwell From Knowledge to Wisdom argues that there is an urgent need, for both intellectual and humanitarian reasons, to bring about a revolution in science and the humanities. The outcome would be a kind of academic inquiry rationally devoted...
The Way Toward Wisdom: An Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Introduction to Metaphysics
University of Notre Dame Press, 2009. by Benedict M. Ashley Once thought to be the task of metaphysics, the synthesis of knowledge has been discounted by many philosophers today. Benedict Ashley, a leading Thomistic scholar, argues that it remains a valid and intellectually fruitful pursuit...
The Wisdom Development Scale: Translating the Conceptual to the Concrete
Journal of College Student Development by Scott C. Brown and Jeffrey A. Greene In a previous study, a conceptual model of wisdom was created (Brown, 2004a) to better understand integrated learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure this wisdom construct. This...
Learning Across the Campus: How College Facilitates the Development of Wisdom
Journal of College Student Development by Scott C. Brown This article provides a theoretical framework and model that explores: wisdom, a multidimensional construct that connects a number of desired learning outcomes; how wisdom develops; and, how college contributes to this process. Read...
Transforming knowledge into wisdom: a contemporary Chinese philosopher's investigation
Philosophy East and West, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 441-458 This essay is an attempt to present the basic thought of Feng Qi (1915-1995), a contemporary twentieth-century Chinese philosopher. Although still not well known in the Western philosophical community, Feng is widely acknowledged in his own country as...
Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wisdom of Aboriginal Peoples in British Columbia
Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 1275-1287 Nancy J. Turner, Marianne Boelscher Ignace and Ronald Ignace This paper discusses the characteristics and application of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wisdom (TEKW) of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia, Canada. Examples are provided from various...
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University of Chicago

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M.A. Social Science, B.A. Biochemistry

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